Earth/Space Honors Final Exam Review Guide 03-04

NAME: __________________________________________

         

The Nature of Science 

  1. To ensure that you have a valid experiment, it must be __________.   

  2. Which of the following is an example of science being performed?    

  3. What is a hypothesis?   

  4. What is the first step in solving a problem in a scientific way?   

  5. How often are scientific theories proved wrong?   

  6. What is the goal of science?    

  7. What is meteorology?   

  8. You are conducting an experiment to discover which brand of mosquito repellent works best. In this experiment, the brand of mosquito repellent is the __________.    

  9. What happens when there's bias in an experiment?   

  10. Which of the following is an example of technology?     

  11. What can cause an experiment to be inaccurate?  

  12. Why do experiments use controls?   

  13. The difference between a theory and a law is that ___________.    

  14. What is the correct approach to doing science?   

  15. Why is scientific information published in journals?    

  16. Why do scientists perform experiments?    

 

Weather 

       

  17. Cumulous clouds are associated with __________.    

  18. What causes wind?   

  19. What does water vapor condense around to form clouds?     

  20. Stratus clouds form __________.    

  21. What causes low-pressure winds to swirl in a counter-clockwise direction?   

22. What is the difference between a tornado and a hurricane?   

  23. What element of air determines its temperature?    

  24. Of the four main types of precipitation, which refreezes after melting near the ground?    

  25. An anemometer measures_____.   

  26. Meteorologists refer to some floods as flash floods because __________.     

  27. ____ is the measure of amounts of moisture in the air compared to the amount needed for saturation at a certain temperature.   

  28. What type of clouds form thunderstorms?    

  29. When two air masses of different densities collide, it's called__________.    

  30. The term stationary front describes a front __________.   

31. In what ways does the Sun influence weather?   

  32. The prefix cirro added to the suffix cumulus, cirrocumulus, refers to __________.  

 

Climate 

   

  33. What three aspects of a climate are considered in the climate classification system?     

  34. A(n) __________ is something that helps an organism survive in its environment.   

35. The northern hemisphere experiences __________ when it's tilted __________ the sun.   

  36. __________ are dark areas on the surface of the sun.  

  37. Greenhouse gases are __________.  

  38. Climate is the pattern of __________ in an area over many years.  

  38. __________ are commonly found on the __________ sides of mountains.  

  39. Why doesn't air in the mountains absorb heat as well as air found at sea level?  

  40. Why do warm currents begin near the equator?  

41. Ice ages alternate with __________.   

42. Seasons are caused by __________.   

43. A direct result of global warming, as opposed to an indirect result, is __________.  

  44. A cause of climatic change that happens over a long period of time is __________.    

  45. Regions with a __________ closer to the equator receive more solar radiation.   

  46. As air rises and cools it releases __________.      

47. When an area on Earth experiences winter, that part of the Earth is _________.   

       

Plate Tectonics

 

  48. What is a magnetic field reversal?   

 49. How do scientists explain the formation of underwater mountain ranges?  

  50. What tool does a scientist use to detect magnetic fields?  

  51. How do scientists use sound waves to figure out the shape of the ocean floor?  

  52. What is a transform boundary?  

  53. What does plate tectonics cause?          

 54. What do scientists believe is the force behind the plate tectonics theory?   

  55. A divergent boundary is a boundary between two plates that __________.   

56. How can Earth's plates move?   

  57. What happens when an oceanic plate converges with a continental plate?   

58. What clue supported the continental drift theory?   

 59. What are strike-slip faults?     

60. What is the lithosphere?    

61. How does the Mesosaurus fossil evidence support the continental drift theory?  

62. What is the plate tectonic theory?   

       

Clues to Earth’s Past

       

  63. What mathematical principle does radiometric dating use to help determine the absolute ages of rocks?  

  64. What does a paleontologist study?

  65. The relative age of something is __________.    

  66. Why do many organisms leave carbonaceous films as evidence of their lives?   

  67. Why do trace fossils provide so much information about how an organism lived?  

  68. Rocks that can be dated radiometrically are mostly __________.  

  69. What geological theory has fossil evidence supported?  

 

Geologic Time

       

  70. How did trilobite eyes develop?   

  71. Where did the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere come from originally?  

72. Which of the following is a species common during the Paleozoic Era?  

  73. __________ are ancestors of reptiles.  

  74. The longest section of Earth's history was __________.  

75. What occurs at the end of a geologic era?  

  76. What is organic evolution?    

  77. A German shepherd and a Chihuahua look different, but they can interbreed. They are __________.   

  78. During the first billion years of Earth's history, ___________.   

79. Which of the following is an example of how a new species can develop in nature?  

80. Which of the following is an example of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection?  

81. When did Pangaea break up?   

82. The Appalachian Mountains, an old mountain range, was formed during what era?  

83. Two organisms look alike but they do not interbreed naturally. They are __________.  

84. What is an example of an index fossil?  

85. Order the divisions of geologic time from the longest to the shortest.  

86. What was Pangaea?  

87. What does the name trilobite mean?